Phonology, Morphology, and Syntax Interfaces in Pakistani Languages

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This paper is about language variation i.e. lexical variation caused by the interfaces of Phonology, Morphology and Syntax in Pakistani languages. According to Shackle (2014) Urdu, Punjabi and Seraiki languages belong to the Indo-Aryan language family. However, there are found many lexical differences significant enough to make these languages quite different from one another. The study focuses on these lexical variations based on three types of interfaces, i.e. Phonology/Morphology, Phonology/Syntax, and Morphology/Syntax. The data has been collected from the native speakers of Urdu, Punjabi, and Seraiki. The analysis of the data includes finding out the three types of interfaces, making derivations and notations (Chomsky and Halle; 1968), and formulating the rules. Then a comparison of all these rules and lexical variations have been discussed. Results have shown that these interfaces play an important role to cause lexical variation among Urdu, Punjabi and Seraiki; the languages with common ancestry


1-Umaima Kamran
Assistant Professor, Department of English, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Samra Saghir
Visiting Lecturer, Department of English, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.


lexical variation, Pakistani languages, IndoAryan, interfaces.

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IV - I

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Published: Jun 2019

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