Unnoticeable maneuverings via the practice of intertextual capitals do snip their existence in the editorials, which ordinary readers may well discover difficult to locate. The picture turns out to be additionally complicated when associated with nationwide affairs of vast magnitude. To bound the expected manipulation of the informative plans given to the readers through the editorials, the current qualitative study mounted to scrutinize editorials of two leading Pakistani English newspapers wherein the researcher situated and inspected the occurrences of tricky usage of intertextual capitals applying appraisal analysis at the core of text analysis within Fairclough’s three-dimensional model. The outcomes of intertextual study reveal significant and devious use of intertextual strategies and instruments by the newspapers to support and propagate their particular ideologies and plans.
The mutual connection amongst the texts is shown through the extensively used phenomenon of intertextuality and can be manifested on several and diverse levels (Bauman, 2004, p.4). A specific tag selection, a particular type of melody, or a certain technique of locomoting a camera in television fiction all present occasions of intertextuality when scrutinized minutely and with an attentiveness to the pertinent relationships. A larger model of intertextuality covering societal rituals, genre, global and national affairs is essentially an essential pivot in situating the assignment’s substantial corroborating structures exposing the situations and beliefs to which they fit in. An examination of intertextuality can create better insight into the stashed meanings, plans and philosophies of the text.
The researcher meant to find out the techniques intertextuality bequests itself in the editorials. Moreover, the investigator painstakingly explored the role played by intertextuality in the designated editorials for ideology construction.
Intertextuality, Manipulations, Newspapers, Editorials
1. What styles of intertextuality is resonated in the study areas taken on in this probe?
2. What are the various techniques in which intertextuality is utilized to create different ideologies in the selected samples of this research?
3. As for the readers of newspapers, what are the implications of intertextuality use in press media and opinion discourse?
The theoretic structure for this study is the concept of intertextuality as taken up by Norman Fairclough. Eliciting Bakhtin’s views, Fairclough suggested the categorization of intertextuality(Fairclough,1992).
Two categories of intertextualities, specifically Reported Speech/Voice and reference to events/people/person, are the focal point of the present research. Intertextual manipulations comprising an ideological selection of quotes/events, intertextual swindle of facts, intertextual ellipses, intertextual transformation, authorial alignment/disalignment with the invoked intertextual resources, bigoted use of linguistic resources in and around the intertextual references were particularly attended in the investigation through the inquiry into the language apparatuses used for the purpose along with the analysis of the given information through accessing the original sources. An insight into the objective of used intertextualities is also gained through analyzing intertextual ellipses whereby some of the words from the original source are missed in the quoted reference (Crystal,2015; Mao, 2015). Intertextual inconsistencies/contradictions wherein contrasting senses were being created through the comparison of the intertextual references within the same, earlier or upcoming texts were also considered.
The three research queries were probed for, using Fairclough’s three-dimensional model of Critical Discourse Analysis whereby texts were scrutinized through the appraisal examination of intertextual assets, using the Martin and White (2005) framework. Interpersonal metafunction of language is the focus of Appraisal analysis which is a part of Systemic Functional Linguistics SFL generated by Halliday (2003).
Two newspapers of Pakistan were designated on the basis of circulation given by the All Pakistan Press Association. The nominated newspapers were The Daily Times and Nation. The discourse chosen for the study was the editorials. Two editorials (one from each selected newspapers, Appendix 1), remarking on the official inaugural ceremonial of Gwadar port, were picked. The event was held on the 13th of November 2016, marking the exit of the first key export cargo from Gwadar port. Since the study is intertextual research, data had to be restricted to a controllable size.
The present analysis has taken only two types of intertextuality into account, namely Reported Speech/Voice and reference to events/people/places.
The editorial (Appendix 1) gave the details of the ceremony held on 13th November 2016 at Gwadar marking the departure of the first major trade cargo from Gwadar port, including the address by the PM Nawaz Sharif and other VIPs. In the next part, the editorial made a reference to the arrival of the first trade convoy at Gwadar port. The last three paragraphs of the editorial detailed the narrative of Balochistan people reservations. The last line of the editorial took a sudden turn to praise the Pakistan army and FWO for their efforts.
The linguistic analysis of the editorial understudy shows that at the social level, the implication of the discursive use of the analyzed intertextual resources is that it tends to drift the reader away from CPEC and perpetuate the projected provincial issue.
“Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif ….in the project.”
The first intertextual reference is found at the beginning of the editorial, whereby the address of PM Nawaz Sharif is referred to in the shape of a transformed indirect quotation. The use of the reporting verb emphasized (“PM……….emphasized Pakistan’s commitment to China’s One Belt-One Road initiative”) by the editor seems meaningful. The reporting verb emphasized seems to carry an implicit mild negative judgement here. Emphasizing one’s own commitment sends two messages:
1. Either the commitment level is low, which is being upgraded by emphasizing it
2. The commitment is being doubted by other stakeholders involved, so it is being emphasized.
The use of the word emphasized by the editor seems to be meant for sending the signal of doubt regarding the commitment of the government.
An alternative choice of reporting verbs could have been
1. PM ……. expressed
2. PM………talked about
3. PM………. Voiced
The researcher watched the full video of PM Nawaz Sharif address at the ceremony (Talk Shows Central,2016) and discovered a number of facts that are manipulated by the editor. In the editorial sentence “PM………. emphasized Pakistan’s commitment to China’s One Belt-One Road initiative.”
The editor picked the possessive use of the word China as China’s with the term ‘One Belt One Road initiative’, thereby implying that this One Belt One Road project is just a Chinese venture. This linguistic maneuver tends to distance Pakistan from the ownership of the project. Since this linguistic style was used while indirectly quoting the PM Nawaz Sharif, thereby indirectly implying that PM said it this way. The researcher watched the full address of the PM, whereby he never used a detached terminology with the project and always used the collective ownership terms for the project. This shows the intertextual ellipses and transformation strategy used in the editorial.
The second selected intertextual reference to the words of PM appears again in the shape of transformed indirect quotation as follows :
‘He also appreciated the efforts of the government of Balochistan and the Pakistan Army for making the local population a stakeholder in the project.’
The exact words spoken by the Prime minister were
‘Alhamdulillah (by the Grace of God) efforts of the federal government, government of Baluchistan and Pakistan Army have been successful in making the local population a stakeholder in the local and national development’(Talk Shows Central,2016).
The transformation into the indirect quote in the editorial finds two interesting intertextual ellipses: one is that of the term ‘the federal government’ and the other is the skipped word ‘successful’ having the positive judgemental word with positive capacity. This ellipse of the positive judgemental word ‘successful’ seems to be an effort by the editor to background the positive news and foreground either the negative or less positive news, thereby launching partisan war journalism frame of being biased towards one side. The actual speech by the PM for this part of intertextual reference was declarative with the positive announcement of success achieved by the three pillars of the state for making the local population of Baluchistan a stakeholder in the project. The editorial mentioned it as an expressive in the shape of appreciation ‘for the efforts’ which might or might not have borne fruit. By showing the positive declarative announcement as expressive appreciation, the force of the utterance was reduced since declarations are having different functions performed by them compared to expressive. As a declarative, the announcement by PM was accompanying the tone successful united achievement for which the federal government was also a part as announced by the PM whereas transformation to appreciation and obfuscating the federal government from it was carrying a message of the detachment of the federal government and doubt on the success as the word ‘effort’ was added by the editor not entailing whether it was successful or not since the statement made by the editorial was
‘... appreciated the efforts of the government of Balochistan and the Pakistan Army for making the local
population a stakeholder in the project...’
If the statement were
‘…appreciated the efforts of the government of Balochistan and the Pakistan Army for ‘successfully’ making the local population a stakeholder in the project.’
Then the surety of success would have been a bit visible.
Announcement of success with one’s own ownership is different from an appreciation of achievement by others for having two different force levels whereby the former is having much stronger attitudinal strength as compared to the latter, thereby downscaling positive news through obfuscation and transformation. Further, the meaningful ellipse for the mention of federal government tends to send a message of disunity between the federal government, Pakistan Army and provincial government of Baluchistan.
An interesting finding while discussing this selection of intertextual reference from PM speech is the fact that this selection does not seem to be related to the last three evaluative and conclusive paragraphs of the editorial. Almost all three last paragraphs of the editorials lament the absence of opportunities for the local population of Baluchistan and Gwadar. Further appraisal analysis of this portion shows generous use of attitudinal linguistic resources with the negative judgemental value showing negative capacity.
The first sentence starts with a disclaimer referring to the positive potential of CPEC to kick-start Pakistan’s economy and in the next sentence refutes it by the introduction of counter-expectancy through the use of concessive conjunction ‘however’ stating that the most important thing is ensuring the benefits of the project to the local population of Baluchistan and Gwadar. Adding up to the graduation force of this counter opinion is the use of upgrading explicit adjectival ‘important’ with the use of the intensifying grader ‘most’. This mounts to nullify the positive potential narrative of CPEC, which though itself was embedded in the negative appreciation of the economy through the monoglossic declarative clause ‘economic growth of Pakistan, which has languished behind the regional countries owning to certain domestic as well as external problems’. The counter-expectancy continues in the next sentence where intertextual references to the resentment of Baluchistan people, events of the past and discriminatory policies of the centre are found. All these three intertextual references are having negative appraisal (resentment) and negative appreciation (discriminatory policies of the centre). The negative appreciation continues by inducing another monoglossic proclaimer with contracted dialogic space ‘Reconciliation will only work’ with the binding clause ‘once the people of the region see the fruits of the project in terms of healthcare, education, infrastructure and job opportunities’ thereby suggesting that ‘Reconciliation will not work’ with the stated condition ‘if the people of the region do not see the fruits of the project in terms of healthcare, education, infrastructure and job opportunities.’
All this implies that people till now have not seen any fruit of the project, thereby launching a negative appreciation of the present shape of all these opportunities implicitly.
This stands in stark contrast to the speech made by the PM. The duration of the PM speech at the ceremony was 15 minutes. Almost half of the speech was dedicated to the various projects launched or being launched or expected to be launched for the local Public of Baluchistan. Here are the given details of the projects for Baluchistan by the PM (Talk Shows Central,2016) :
1.Projects worth Rs 74 Billion underway with complete autonomy and independence to the province.
2. Rs 200 billion projects to be launched next year.
3. Rs 11.5 Billion being used on water projects to provide 5million Gallons of additional water.
4.Swat, and Shari got Dams complete.
5.Basol dam in progress.
6.Free trade zone established with a number of concessions for business to the local population.
7.3major roads, namely N85, Turbot-Panjgoor -Sorab Road, Gwadar-Turbat-Hoshab section M8 motorway and Qallat-Quetta-Chamman road.
8.Hospital being upgraded, one university, one technical institute being established.
9.Exclusive industrial park, mineral processing zone, the economic zone being established.
10.300-megawatt power plant being planned. Etc.
PM Nawaz Sharif’s speech had the answer to all the objections raised by the editor, but neither of these positive details given by the prime minister could find a place in the intertextual references made by the editor, nor could these details stop the editor from creating the already answered questions. As White (2006), contends that although a writer/speaker may offer a quoted source, which is not openly assessed, the citation of that source and the choice of those words and not any other grouping in what the source said or wrote is a clear sign on the part of the writer for the views s/he upholds. This editorial seems to indicate the anti-nationalist ideology being promoted by the editor by using the war frame journalism by aggravating and manipulating the content for conflict(Galtung,2002).
Further, in the second line of the second last paragraph, the editor using the deontic modal ‘should’ obligates the conflict forcefully removing efforts in the following words
‘…arrangements should be made by bringing the locals onboard, highlighting the importance of the project to the people of those areas….’
The editorial itself, though, seems to violate this obligation by foregrounding the conflicts through the use of negative appreciation, affect and judgement and to background unity by giving no voice to all the accomplishments detailed by the PM for the Baluchistan people.
The following questions arise
1 Is the editorial itself following its own advice of highlighting the importance of the project to the people of these areas?
2 Is this editorial playing a role to diffuse the conflict?
3 Is the editorial playing a role to spread national unity?
4 Are the selected intertextual references by the editor really relevant to the announced necessitation of bringing the people on board by highlighting the importance of the project?
The answer to all these questions is ‘no’. The editorial lists the deprivations of people of Baluchistan and foregrounds them whereas backgrounds all those on ground measures and projects implemented by the government for Baluchistan people by totally denying space in the editorial to those efforts enumerated by PM. Anti-nationalist, anti-CPEC ideology through the use of conflict frames of journalism surfaces through analysis.
In the fourth sentence of the editorial, an intertextual reference in the shape of transformed indirect speech of the Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan Sun Weidong :
‘Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan Sun Weidong … appreciated the efforts of all stakeholders in the project.’
An intertextual relationship is found between this intertextual reference and the first one referring to the speech of PM. This intertextual relationship is that of referring to the speeches of both the PM and Chinese ambassador as the speech acts of expressive ‘appreciation’.
This selected reference again seems to have no relation with the last three paragraphs of the editorial whereby the Baluchistan people issue is being highlighted with negative appraisal being used as discussed in the earlier part of the analysis. A generalized term ‘appreciated’ was used to summarize the speech of the ambassador being referred to. Though the term ‘appreciation’ has positive affective value, those parts of the ambassador’s speech, which were meant to assuage and dispel Baluchistan’s propagated conflicts, could not find a place in the intertextual reference chosen by the editor. For the editor focusing on the projected conflicts of Baluchistan people in the last three evaluative paragraphs of the editorial, the selection of intertextual references could have been those parts of speeches that were addressing those conflicts. The selection thereby seems ideologically motivated to keep the conflicts that appear in the foreground as unresolved and unaddressed. The researcher watched the address of the ambassador (Talk Shows Central,2016) and found a number of speech parts that addressed the launched conflicts. Given below are some selected parts of the original speech of the ambassador :
“…tens and thousands of the jobs have been created for the local people…” (Talk Shows Central,2016).
“…the convoy always get a warm welcome and huge support from the local people. This proves that there exists a solid popular foundation and cross-board consensus for CPEC. This is the source of our confidence…” (Talk Shows Central,2016).
These quotes or any part of these quotes having positive appraisal values were not given a space in the reference. The addition of these quotes or some part of these quotes would have been an example of responsible journalism with journalistic piece frame foregrounding unity and backgrounding differences. As White (2006) illuminates that in attribution, authors can align with or disalign from the external source. He argues that even attribution itself bears value positions and ideological inclinations. Anti-nationalist, anti-CPEC ideology seems to emerge again through the ideological selection of reported speech.
The last sentence of the second last paragraph intertextually refers to the heavy security of the first trade convoy in the following Words
“The first convoy of trade goods from China …threats and attacks.”
The above given intertextual reference is loaded with negative appraisal terms. Referring to the convoy as ‘accompanied by heavy security is negative appreciation having negative valuation and evaluating it according to Bednarek’s (2009) appreciation lexis for judging behavior, it is having a negative value of normality. This negative assessment is achieved through the use of explicit graduation force grader ‘heavy’ launching and upgrading the negative appreciation of the situation. The used linguistic resources tend to deliver a message of negative, heavy and abnormal liability for the security of the CPEC trade convoy. Further intensifying the negative appreciation is the elaboration given in the next attached part of the sentence joined through the subordinating conjunction ‘which’ serving as an anaphoric reference to the term ‘heavy security. This segment declares and proclaims that the security will cost a huge sum to the national exchequer ‘if the route is not made safe from all kinds of threats and attacks.
So indirectly, the message being sent to the reader is for CPEC as a burden on the economy. The last part of the sentence joined through the conditional conjunct ‘if’ presupposes that the route is open to all kinds of threats and attacks. Negative appreciation of the current security situation along with the affective tone of insecurity through the used words ‘threats and attacks is obvious. It seems a special effort is made by the editor to curb the message of success, accomplishment, mutual cooperation, unity and strength, which the reader could receive through the historical event of the departure of the first major trade convoy through Gwadar port under the banner of CPEC. The success of any huge national project very much hinges upon the united hands of the nation behind it, and responsible journalism has a big share to earn that unity. This part of the editorial shows the war journalism of focusing on frames of disunity and conflict. This stands in stark contradiction to the ‘must do’ task announced by the editor :
‘arrangements should be made by bringing the locals onboard, highlighting the importance of the project to the people of those areas. The editorial which announces the need to harmonize is itself doing the exact opposite of disharmonizing.
The last sentence of the editorial comes with another irrelevant and dictating turn
‘Moreover, the dedication, selflessness and perseverance put by the Pakistan Army as well as the FWO must be recognized; these are the people who have been working and safeguarding the workers for the successful and peaceful implementation of the project.’
The high obligation model ‘must be’ with the strong declarative in the second part of the sentence is found. A strong model of this strength used suggests that probably the efforts of the Army are not recognized, and its soldiers are not appreciated. This is not a fact. The editorial itself referred to the speech of PM recognizing and commemorating the efforts of the Pakistan Army. This is a contradiction that a thing that is already happening is being demanded in such a forceful way that it seems that demanded thing is absent or having skimpy existence. Anti-CPEC and anti-Nationalist ideology seem to emerge through the analysis.
In the editorials of 3rd and 20th September, the editor implicitly suggested Pakistan Army as not having the right tone for diplomatic fronts and as an interfering body not abiding by the law. Thereby this aggressive dictation by the editor in the current editorial to recognize Pakistan Army’s efforts creates doubts as to what purpose it is launched. Linguistic analysis suggests that this is done to spread a message of having a weak Army in Pakistan for whom respect calls are to be given. It also might be an effort to frame the reader’s perception of the existence of the conflict between the Pakistan Army and the government so that the reader falls to the narrative of disunity between the two pillars of the state. This definitely tends to divide the nation against CPEC by creating a message of uncertainty surrounding CPEC. Anti-Nationalist ideology seems to emerge through the use of the war journalism frame.
A significant intertextual relation among the editorials of 3rd,5th and 20th September and 14th October is the reference to the Baluchistan issue and the same was not forgotten by Indian PM Modi on India’s independence day speech. This intertextual relationship seems difficult to be taken as mere coincidence, and the question arises which ideology is being primed. The linguistic evidence shows anti-nationalist, anti-CPEC ideology emerging through analysis.
The theme of CPEC in the editorial is surrounded by almost all negative appraisals in all the intertextual references studied. Anti-nationalist, anti-CPEC ideology seems to emerge through the analysis of the intertextual references studied.
Answering research question number two, the linguistic analysis of the intertextual resources shows the existence of intertextual manipulations, consuming a number of linguistic tools like transformed indirect quotation, ideological selection of indirect quote, intertextual ellipses, selected obfuscation of agents, monoglossic proclaimers, disclaimers, downscaling positive news, disclaimers, counter expectancy, upgrading adjectivals, positive appreciation embedded in negativity, obfuscated declarative speech acts, obfuscation of crucial information, foregrounding negativity backgrounding positivity, in a discriminatory, contradictory and manipulative way, to launch anti-nationalist and anti-CPEC ideology. The intertextual relation found with the stance of Indian PM Modi shows pro-Indian ideology active in the background. Responding to research question number three, it is seen that, for the readers, the implication of the discursive use of the intertextual resources in this editorial is that at the social level, it tends to divide the reader against CPEC, send a message of uncertainty, perpetuate the provincial conflict, air distrust and doubt surrounding CPEC.
The current research focused on two types of intertextualities, namely Reported Speech/Voice and reference to events/people/place.
Answering research question number one, in this editorial intertextual references were found mainly at 3 places with 4 passing references, which were made the part of the discussion of the main references. Out of these 7 references, no intertextual reference was in the shape of direct quotation. The references were having indirect voices and events/places being referred to. Here are the details of intertextual references.
Intertextual Reference to PM Speech in Gwadar First Major Trade Cargo Ceremony
No direct quotation found. Transformed indirect speech used. Manipulations and intertextual ellipses found. Declarative speech act changed to expressive. Ideologically motivated selection of the selected quotation observed. Coherence and relevance of the intertextual reference to the evaluative paragraphs missing. Use of negative appraisal and negative appreciation terms in the evaluative paragraphs found.
Intertextual Reference to Chinese Ambassador Address
Transformed indirect speech found. Ideologically motivated selection of the speech observed. No relevance with the last evaluative paragraphs found.
Intertextual Reference to the Heavy Security of Trade Convoy
No direct or indirect quotation found. Negative appreciation terms, negative judgement and affective terms found.
Embedded Intertextual References to Baluchistan
Embedded intertextual reference to Baluchistan, events of past, and policies of center found with negative judgement and appreciation through and through.
Intertextual Contradiction with Earlier Editorials Found
Intertextual contradiction with 3rd and 20th September editorials found for having an anti-Army stance in 3rd and 20th September and a pro-Army stance in the current editorial.
The editorial (Appendix 1) covers the ceremony marking the formal opening of the Gwadar port on the 13th of Nov 2016. The editorial describes the moment as momentous relief and a result of the labour of all parties involved. Further, the editorial highlights the importance of Gwadar port from China and Pakistan’s perspective. The linguistic analysis of the editorial understudy shows that at the social level, the implication of the discursive use of the analyzed intertextual resources is that it tends to generate a sense of achievement among its readers regarding CPEC.
The editorial begins by referring to the arrival of the first mega trade convoy at Gwadar on Sunday 13th of November 2016. The lines are as follows:
“As the first …behind the project.”
The effective use of the idiom ‘collective sigh of relief’ is visible, which suggests the arrival of the first mega trade convoy at Gwadar as comfort that came after some impeding danger of failure. The government is presented as having come out of some tight spot. This idiom is having an effective value of happiness, security and satisfaction. The editor uses the adverbial ‘finally’ having the explicit graduation force with the verb ‘begun’ that further feasts a message of something that started with a long delay having a mildly negative judgement. Through appreciation lexis, which can be seen as judging actions of those who caused the delay, the intertextual reference carries a message of slightly negative capacity because of the delay implicitly referred to. The intertextual reference has an overall impact of sending a message of hard-won achievement, thereby spreading an ideology of nationalistic accomplishment and patriotic nationalism.
The terms Nationalist and anti-Nationalist are used in this paper to refer to pro-state and non-state ideologies, respectively, in line with the definition given in Encyclopedia Britannica (“Nationalism”, n.d.).
The next intertextual reference appears in the following words
"The ISPR videos ….of regional connectivity.”
The researcher watched the above referred full video of ISPR played in the ceremony and found the above-mentioned words “General Raheel Sharif’s Vision” altogether missing from the video (Talk Shows Central,2016). Further nowhere in the video the credit was singled out to any one stakeholder. This is an example of intertextual manipulation whereby putting the manipulated words in scare quotes further heightens the impact of multiple meanings being conveyed. The scare quotes are mostly used to signpost ‘so- called’. The practice of scare quotes around specific words suggests that the words in quotes must be seen with reservation. It is seen that scare quotes are the most common presentational feature used in the realization of partiality in the articles. The use of the scare quotes may be incited by the fact that they express bias very indirectly. Their demonstration and application do not require words but just quotation marks. The usage of scare quotes in a prejudiced way can sometimes be almost indiscernible. When few words are enclosed in quotation marks, it indicates that only those specific words should be suspected. They may make the reader doubt the sincerity of the utterance that is conveyed. (pajunen,2008). Here as well, the use of scare quotes around the selected words seems to send a message of the doubt for the quoted part that is CPEC as the fruit of ‘General Raheel Sharif’s vision’. The next part of the same intertextual reference puts a few of the PM’s words in scare quotes which suggest that PM has taken the credit for himself and the Chinese government, which again is an example of intertextual manipulation as the researcher again watched the full speech of the PM Nawaz Sharif (Talk Shows Central, 2016) and found that the PM gave full credit to all the stakeholders involved. To what objective then the editor went for these intertextual manipulations needs an answer. The answer came in the very next line that becomes the next intertextual reference of the analysis.
This intertextual reference appears in the .following Words
“The Prime Minister’s office ..Gwadar port from 2002 to 2007.”
The answer to the question that arose after the analysis of the above intertextual references, as to why the editor chose to go for intertextual manipulation, appears in the current intertextual reference whereby the editor announces Musharraf Government to be credited for the launch of Gwadar port. Interesting use of linguistic resources is visible to further this analysis. The editor uses a disclaimer to disclaim the stance of ISPR and government through the use of downscaling graduation resource in the shape of the attitude adverb ‘perhaps’ while negatively evaluating the ISPR and the government through the use of the verb ‘forgetting’ that has the judgemental force of negative veracity. Continuing with the disclaimer, the editor, through using the adverbial ‘actually’ and upscaling the veracity of the claim, nominates the Musharraf government as the initial launchers of Gwadar port development. Assessing the above intertextual references in the next line, the editor uses the ‘adverb’ to suggest this occasion as the fruit of the labor of all the involved parties. Noteworthy is the positive appreciation term ‘momentous’ also having a positive affective value of happiness along with having upscaling graduation force. The words ‘fruit of the labour’ also carries a positive affective value of satisfaction and happiness. Positive appreciation was extended towards China by using the upscaling adverbial ‘particularly’. A number of contradictions catch analytical attention here. The intertextually manipulated reference to ISPR video was shown as an effort for giving the credit of CPEC to General Raheel and PM speech for taking the credit of CPEC to himself but the disclaimer that the editor launches is to give the credit to Musharraf government. The development of Gwadar is but just one part of CPEC, which is a huge bunch of megaprojects. Operationalization of Gwadar port through CPEC took the construction of mega Eastern and Western Corridors; the credit for which does not go to Musharraf government thereby this credit distribution by the editor seems a bit out of place and mistaken. But whether the credit nomination by the editor is sound or not needs to be answered. In any case, an effort of shifting the credit to someone not qualified for it may be taken as a political move to generate goodwill for the nominated party but is definitely not an effort to malign the project. The analysis of the linguistic resources utilized by the editor thereby suggests the emergence of patriotic nationalist and pro-CPEC ideology whereby the editor does not launch or regenerate any such controversy which may malign the development of CPEC.
While discussing the effect of the Gwadar Operationalization, the editor details the situation as follows:
“There is much reason for… superpower of the world.”
This next intertextual reference is to China’s emancipation from the Strait of Malacca through which China’s 80% of the oil supply moves. The Gwadar port will give China the access to Arabian sea barely 600 kilometres away from the Strait of Hormuz. The intertextual reference is surrounded by a number of positive appreciation linguistic resources and affective terms. The paragraph begins with a declarative announcing China as having much reason to celebrate, and an analyst can question does the editor mean ‘not much’ for Pakistan. Noteworthy is the use of the effective term to celebrate having the affective value of happiness along with the implicit grader, much to upscale the force of this effect. Positive appreciation of Gwadar port is visible at a number of points e.g.
1. Corridor will stretch from the Western Xinxiang province of China to the port of Gwadar
2. Corridor will provide access to the Chinese to the Arabian Sea
3. China will bypass the Malacca Strait
4. The corridor will reduce the distance by 2000 miles.
5. Corridor will cement China’s place as the next economic superpower
Further, the Gwadar port is positively appreciated through the use of the adjectival all-important. The overall analysis of this intertextual reference and the surrounding text points towards the emergence of pro-CPEC ideology whereby different positive features of the project are highlighted through the use of the positive appraisal.
The next intertextual reference appears as follows :
“In the early nineties… be left behind.”
The editor gives reference to the Iranian port of Chahbahar built by India to bypass Pakistan to reach its interest in Afghanistan. The editorial also shares that India conducts trade worth 15 billion dollars with Iran and imports about 15% of oil from Iran. The use of counter-expectancy through the use of sub-ordinate prepositional phrase ‘Despite international pressure against it’ is visible that shows India’s resolve to safeguard its economic interests despite pressures of many sorts. India is also shown further as building a Railway System to reach the Central Asian markets and tap mineral-rich Central Afghanistan.
Assessing the mentioned references, the editor proclaims through monoglossic declarative by the use of copular ‘is’ that India is doing what it must for its own national interest. In the next part of the same sentence, the editor uses a strong adjectival phrase with the copular ‘be’ to strongly necessitate the stance that it is imperative for Pakistan not to be left behind. It is pertinent to note how Bednarek found it advantageous to detect within the news media the existence of "evaluative parameters", that is, a series of binary viewpoints that speakers/writers take towards the world. These comprise whether something is "necessary or unnecessary", "expected or unexpected", "good or bad", "important or unimportant", "genuine or fake", "comprehensible or incomprehensible”, or "possible or impossible". According to Bednarek (2006:67) the key evaluative parameters within media texts are reliability, emotivity, expectedness, importance, possibility/necessity and, comprehensibility. The strong evaluative term ‘imperative’ used by the editor strongly represents the stance taken by the editor.
The last intertextual reference appears in the following Words
“No matter what …like the US.”
The editor concludes through a strong disclaimer, refuting the voice of detractors through the subordinate negation ‘no matter what the detractors say’ and then strongly declares through the perfect form of copular ‘be’ that Chinese investments in Pakistan have been a boon for us. The editor further highlights its importance by the use of effective terminology ‘felt forsaken’ in the subordinate adverbial clause ‘especially when we have felt forsaken by old friends like the US.’ The terminology ‘left forsaken’ has got the negative effect of insecurity and distrust. Those who speak against CPEC are negatively named as detractors, and their action has been judged as something that does not matter, thereby having a negative judgemental force of negative veracity and negative propriety. Further, the Chinese investment is appreciated positively through the use of the effective word ‘boon’, having a feeling of happiness and satisfaction.
Answering research question number two, the linguistic analysis of the intertextual resources shows a number of linguistic tools like counter-expectancy, attitude adverbs, affective terminologies, graduation forces, appreciation resources, scare quotes, and strong disclaimers to launch nationalist and pro-CPEC ideology. Intertextual manipulations with misquoted voices of the external sources are also found in this editorial. Responding to research question number three, it is seen that, for the readers, the implication of the discursive use of the intertextual resources in this editorial is that at the social level, it tends to generate a sense of achievement among its readers regarding CPEC.
The current research focused on two types of intertextualities, namely Reported Speech/Voice and reference to events/people/place.
Answering research question number one, in this editorial intertextual references were found at 6 places. Out of these six references, no intertextual reference was in the shape of direct quotation. The references were having indirect voices or events/places being referred to. Here are the details of intertextual references
1. Intertextual Reference to the Arrival of Trade Convoy without directly or indirectly quoting anyone. Use effective and appreciation resources found.
2. Intertextual Reference to ISPR video and PM address at Gwadar Cargo Ceremony by indirectly quoting the voices of the participants. Intertextual manipulation found.
3. Intertextual Reference to Musharraf Government. No direct quotation found. Voices indirectly added. Contradictions found and use of effective and appreciation terms visible.
4. Intertextual Reference to Strait of Malacca found. No direct or indirect quotation found. Appraisal and appreciation resources used.
5. Intertextual reference the Iranian port of Chahbahar without any direct or indirect quotation. Strong proclaimers found.
6. Intertextual Reference to the US without any direct or direct quotations. Strong disclaimers and affective terms found.
While adding up these intertextual references, the editor did make the ideological use of appraisal resources whereby appraisal kit of attitude, graduation, engagement, through linguistic tools like monoglossia, disclaimers, negations, conditionals, ellipses, conditional conjuncts etc. were used to make the meaning.
The inquiry established that through opinion units of the newspaper, an incredibly substantial role is played for ideology construction by intertextual resources. The investigator situated many occurrences of intertextual transformations, manipulations, ellipses, authorial alignment, anonymous intertextual engagements, contradictions, authorial distancing, negative appraisals/positive appraisals, discriminatory use of linguistic resources, declarative, graduation forces, counter expectancy, and modalities etc. within and around the intertextual resources framing the reader’s mind on a particular track as determined by the newspaper. A total of 13 intertextual references were located in the newspapers. Out of these 13 references, no reference was found in the shape of direct quotation. The intertextual references were in the shape of indirect quotes, voices/events.
The language investigation of the intertextual resources of Daily Times demonstrates the presence of intertextual contradictions, utilizing a number of linguistic tools like hedging lexis, downscaled strong prediction modals, ,agentless construction, third-person pronouns for showing authorial detachment, strong negation, counter expectancy, negative presuppositions, down scalers and negative appreciation, transformed indirect quotation, ideological selection of indirect quote, intertextual ellipses, obfuscated declarative speech acts, obfuscation of crucial information, foregrounding negativity backgrounding positivity in a discriminatory and manipulative way, to launch anti-CPEC and anti-national ideology , drifting the readers away from CPEC, perpetuating the projected provincial issue, dividing the reader against CPEC, masking the well-known proof of performance as a catastrophe, sending a message of doubt, perpetuating the provincial conflict, airing disbelief and uncertainty surrounding CPEC and maligning the readers against CPEC through the couched use of masked negative appraisal.
Ample use of intertextual manipulations in a number of different ways is found in Daily Times as given in the detailed analysis. A less knowledgeable reader with more limited access to the other resources may perhaps become easy prey to the ideological advances of these intertextual recourses.
The language investigation of the intertextual capitals of The Nation displays a number of linguistic tools like counter-expectancy, attitude adverbs, affective terminologies, graduation forces, appreciation resources, scare quotes, and strong disclaimers to launch nationalist and pro-CPEC ideology and to generate a sense of achievement among its readers regarding CP3 EC.
hereby recommended through the study that newspaper readers should be educated
regarding these manipulative moves of the newspapers so that resistant reading
skills can be developed that can, in turn, lead to a better-informed society.
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